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How has the international movement of the Muslim Brothers penetrated Indonesia and how has it been manifested within Jemaah Tarbiyah? The development of the Muslim Brothers beyond home territory is clear evidence that the movement is a transnational phenomenon. Advances in communication technology have enabled the messages and ideas of the society to be easily received by other Muslims.
This can happen through Internet facilities and other media.
However, as a religious movement that still believes in the significance of conventional transmission through human encounter, all processes of transferring Islamic knowledge and religious authority still rely on direct interaction. Thus it is better to seek the personal framework of diffusion and processes of emulation in which religious movements and events of the Middle East may encourage similar processes in other countries.
A very general definition of diffusion is a communication process with a source that sends a message through a channel to a receiver. The role of the reference country in transmitting religious and political influences is highly significant. The fact that the Middle East was the birthplace of Islam guarantees its central role as a source of religious authority.
Moreover, the strategic position of the Middle East, particularly Saudi Arabia, in providing services for the study of Islam and the yearly international religious pilgrimage of the Hajj strengthens its credentials as the safeguard and true example of Islamic practice and inspiration.
Every religious manifestation from these regions is highly esteemed by fellow Muslims outside Arabia, particularly in our case, Indonesia. In fact, there has been close contact and a mutual relationship between Indonesia and the countries of the Middle East for centuries. Historically, Mecca was the centre of Islamic religious education for Indonesian students.
From the 17 th through the 19 th centuries, many prominent religious leaders and scholars in Indonesia studied under the supervision of the great ulama in Mecca. In some cases, they went initially only to perform the pilgrimage, but afterwards stayed on for some period of time to learn from the great Meccan scholars. As the numbers of pilgrims to the holy city increased over the centuries, so the numbers of Indonesian students in Mecca grew.
In contrast, Cairo in those early centuries was not a place of interest for Indonesians. Most students coming to the Middle East were motivated by religious goal, and Egypt was less well known in that regard.
It was after the emergence of the Reformist movement led by Muhammad Abduh in the early years of the 20th century that the role of Egypt as a source of religious learning and political ideas for Muslims increased.
himpunan risalah imam hasan al-banna by Salehan bin Ayub
But still, in terms of numbers, Indonesian students in Egypt were never more than those in Saudi Arabia. Ina report from the Egyptian government revealed that among foreign students at al-Azhar University, only about seven were Indonesians. By the middle of the s, as a result of the Modernist movement in Egypt, the motivation of Indonesian students shifted from the religious to the political and ideological, and the centre of Islamic education too shifted from Mecca to Cairo.
Students in Mecca only attended classes in religious subjects; in contrast, in Cairo, according to the historian William Roff, they could benefit from the lively political and intellectual dynamics of Egyptian society of the time. Because of the high reputation of Al-Azhar University and its scholars, many Indonesian Muslims received their degrees from universities in Egypt.
The fact that the influential modernist figure, Muhammad Abduh, was a prominent scholar who became Rector of al-Azhar, as well as Grand Mufti, meant that most Indonesian students who studied in Egypt took their inspiration from him.
His modernist ideas spread rapidly throughout the Indonesian archipelago. In Java, inhis pupils established the Islamic organization of Muhammadiyah. Although Ahmad Dahlan, the founder of the organization, did not himself graduate from Cairo, he studied modernist thought during his stay in Mecca under the supervision of a great Mecca scholar, Ahmad Khatib, a follower of Abduh.
Khatib was of Indonesian descent, hailing from the Minangkabau region of Sumatra. Many other religious activists, particularly in Java and Sumatra, received their religious training in Egypt. Accordingly, upon their arrival back home, they carried the modernist ideas of Abduh, and certain books on religion, to be taught in their schools.
On the whole, however, relations between Egyptian and Indonesian Muslims were more noticeable after Indonesian political independence in Owing to the longstanding intellectual and religious connections between the two countries, the Egyptian government was the first to acknowledge the independence of Indonesia. During the national revolution to defend independence, in some Indonesian delegations including Syahrir and Agus Salim were assigned to meet the chairman of the Society of the Muslim Brothers, Hasan al-Banna on an Indonesian government mission to thank to him and the Egyptian people for their support.
Furthermore, the numbers of Indonesians studying in Egypt fluctuated during the stage from immediately post-Indonesian independence until the late s and was the result of domestic conflicts and civil strife in defending the nation from the aggression of the Dutch. In only about 80 students studied in Cairo.
However, from the mids to the mids when Indonesian political conditions had become more stable and economic progress had improved many Indonesians went to Egypt to further their studies. Regarding the increase in Indonesian students in Egypt after the s, Abaza saw this as an indirect result of an intensive process of Islamisation that prevailed in Indonesian society at the time.
However, Abaza failed to explain the fact that most students who studied in Egypt were not newly devout santri s, the product of the process of Islamisation and santrinization.
They studied there on Egyptian scholarships or with private financial support from their parents. Even more frequent were students receiving financial support from mosques and charitable institutions in Egypt. It is highly unlikely such students were the product of any short-term Islamisation process; they must have gone through long training in Islamic institutions in Indonesia.
In fact, the Islamisation process in some areas of Indonesia was initiated by government agents, in particular the ruling party, Golongan Karya Golkar. The government support of Islamic activities attempted to attract Indonesian Muslims and in particularly to take over the role of Islamic predication from local and independent religious leaders who were mostly associated with opposition political parties.
The government initiated many Islamic activities and construction projects, such as activating missionary programs dakwah and building mosques and Islamic institutions. However, during this era, rather than encouraging students of religion to study in the Middle Eastern countries, the government preferred to send its students to study in the West, such as in Canada or America.
More than graduate students, mainly from the State Islamic Religion Institute, Institute Agama Islam Negeri IAIN were sent by the Department of Religion to prestigious universities in the West, while only 50 students were sent to al-Azhar or other institutions in the Middle East to pursue undergraduate degrees in Islamic studies. A feeling of disillusionment towards the government inclined many young Muslims to study in Egypt in order to avoid further repression.
Natsir in building contact with Middle Eastern leaders and organizations also succeeded in bringing more Indonesians to study in the Middle East. In there were students and in this increased significantly to In short, Indonesia-Middle East relations have had an impact on religious and intellectual developments.
In general, we can say that the influence of the Middle East mediated by Indonesian students graduating from Middle Eastern universities stimulated the dynamics of Islam in Indonesia.
This influence is best described in terms of three different generations. They were divided into two further groups: Both the Mecca and Cairo groups then established two outstanding but different Islamic organizations, Nahdlatul Ulama and Muhammadiyah, each with its own distinctive himpunzn in Indonesia.
The second generation was the post-Independence generation, identical in their orientation to Islamic liberal and rational thought. The rationalist movement, initiated by Harun Nasution and followed by other liberal figures such as Abdurrahman Wahid, signified a different phase in Indonesian Islam.
The third generation was that of the s and s, who were attracted to fundamentalist ideas. The ideas of Sayyid Qutb and the society of the Muslim Brothers influenced them most. An interesting observation reported by Dawam Rahardjo during two short visits to Egypt confirmed this changing orientation in different generations of Indonesian students there. In the s he visited Cairo and witnessed that the renewal ideas of Nurcholish Madjid were not accepted and rather harshly criticised by students.
Interestingly, he also predicted the emergence of political representation by various Indonesian Muslim groups. He was so impressed with what he perceived as the wide acceptance by students towards the establishment of the National Mandate Party, Partai Amanat National PAN initiated by the wl and then followed baanna other Muslim-represented parties. What attracted my mind was the establishment himpuban political parties.
It meant that students from NU started to irsalah in Cairo and al-Azhar. What was most interesting was the strong support of students for the Justice Party PK which indicated that the influence of Salafiyah and fundamentalism was still strong enough.
In fact, the composition of Indonesian students in Egypt has changed since the s. It was understandable that during the s and s resistance to the ideas of renewal Islam represented the dominant face of Indonesian students in Egypt. However, since the s, as was witnessed by Rahardjo, students were more receptive toward the renewal movement, but still Islamist views gained popularity.
Therefore, the generation of Islamist-oriented groups, mainly represented by PKS, had strong roots among students in Egypt since the late s. The dynamics of the socio-cultural milieu of Egypt is a major factor in generating influential students who have contributed to religious and political discourse after their return home to Indonesia.
Egypt, and in particular, Cairo is one of the central Islamic civilisations, where the struggle between traditionalism and modernism has taken place more dynamically than in other parts of the Islamic world, including Saudi Arabia. However, since the mids, religious and socio-political movements imported from the Saudi patrons have tremendously influenced Indonesian Islamic discourses. How has the shift of influence from Egypt to Saudi occurred?
Despite the fact that the numbers of Indonesian students in Egypt have continuously increased, contemporary Islam in Indonesia is characterised predominantly by the emergence ahsan movements built on strong relations with Saudi patrons.
It should also be noted that the initial contact between Indonesian students and Egyptian Muslim Brothers occurred in Arabia – not in Egypt, where the movement was born. The role of Mecca and Medina, called the Haramayn the Two Yasan Cities banns sites for the transmission of new religious ideas to Indonesia has increased once more.
The main reason for this shift in the source of religious influence lies in efforts conducted by the Saudi government to become an influential leader among Muslim countries. The emergence of Saudi Arabia as a petrol-dollar power in the s and the success of the Iranian revolution were key points in this development. The Iranian Revolution contested the fundamental issue of the legitimacy of the Saud monarchy. Since the s, the Saudi government has expanded its role in sponsoring religious activities by establishing and building Islamic centres and educational banns.
What is more, the cachet of Saudi Arabia as the guardian of the Two Holy Cities has not been confined to the non-Arab Muslim countries but has also expanded into Egypt itself, though renowned for the religious prestige of al-Azhar. Thus, when the Egyptian government suppressed many veterans of the Muslim Brothers, the Saudi government provided them with refuge.
Since that date, the kingdom of Saudi Arabia has limited the access of the Muslim Brothers, which also has had a great impact on their activities in the Holy Cities of Arabia, including efforts to develop cadres among Indonesian students. The following sub-sections will discuss how Indonesian Muslims have played a role in transmitting Muslim Brothers principles to Indonesia, initially mediated through educational institutions in Saudi Arabia and through other means.
The era of s and s signified the encounter of Indonesian Muslims with new transnational movements. Bajna Islamic movements in this period have been generally identified by their connections with movements in risa,ah Middle East. For instance, in the mids the Muslim Brothers influenced Indonesian Islam through printed media and through personal interaction.
It was not only the Salafi group that benefited from the establishment of LIPIA, since Jemaah Tarbiyah was also able to recruit cadres from this institution, many of its students coming from both traditionalist and modernist pesantren in Java and the Outer Islands.
In the early s, a split developed among lecturers who belonged to the purist Salafi movement and those who were influenced by the Muslim Brothers.
Books by Hassan al-Banna
The competition between the two groups also occurred among students. Himmpunan seemed that the influence of the Muslim Brothers increasingly developed so much as to move the Salafi rivals to discourage their followers from attending the institution, to avoiding hlmpunan political dominance of the Muslim Brothers-influenced Jemaah Tarbiyah movement. What make the ideas of the Muslim Brothers so readily accepted by the generation of Muslims of the s in Indonesia are their practical ideas and their moderation.
The practical character of the society lies in its gradual reform of Muslim society by promoting economic, social and political solutions for Muslim disadvantage. The modern and scientific approach of the Muslim Brothers scholars in Saudi attracted us, particular in organising a movement.
Furthermore, there is a deeply spiritual dimension within the Muslim Brothers movement that has enabled it to integrate with Indonesian Muslims since, for many centuries, Indonesia has been renowned as a centre of Islamic spirituality. For instance, activists of the Muslim Brothers emphasise the significance of a purified heart and a total submission to God in order to revive Islamic civilisation. So how precisely did the initial contact between the Egyptian Muslim Brothers and Indonesian Muslims take place?
Generally speaking, two channels mediate the process of religious transmission: