This course is a study of the history of theater art and practice from its origins to the modern period, including its roles in non-western cultures. Special attention is . 10 years TU Delft OpenCourseWare () and there is a journal publication opportunity in the open access journal ‘Open Praxis’. is a journal publication opportunity in the open access journal ‘Open At TU Delft OpenCourseWare, we are constantly looking for ways to.
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The role of distance education is shifting.
Traditionally distance education was limited in the number of people served because of production, reproduction, and distribution costs. Today, while it still costs the university time and money to produce a course, technology has made it such that reproduction costs are almost non-existent.
This shift has significant implications, jurna allows distance educators to play an important role in the fulfillment of the promise of the right to universal education.
At little or no cost, universities can make their opencoursdware available to millions. This content has the potential to substantially improve the quality jurnwl life of learners around the world. New distance education technologies, such as OpenCourseWares, act as enablers to achieving the universal right to education.
These technologies, and the associated changes in the cost of providing access to education, change distance education’s role from one of classroom alternative to one of social transformer. The role of distance education is changing. Traditionally distance education was limited in the number of people served because of production, reproduction, distribution, and communication opencoursesare. In the past, schools spent resources to produce a course, and then spent additional iurnal to reproduce the course, and send it to students.
While it still costs a university time and money to produce a course, technology has made reproduction and distribution costs almost non-existent. A course can be sent electronically, or placed online, and any number of students can access the material. This marked decrease in costs has significant implications and allows distance educators to play an important role in the fulfillment of the promise of the right to universal education.
At relatively little additional cost, universities can make their ujrnal available to millions. Article 26 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights declares that everyone has the right to education, and that “technical and professional education shall opencourrseware made generally available United Nations, Currently, over 2, open access courses are freely available from over universities worldwide.
And additional higher education institutions are launching OpenCourseWare-style projects regularly. New distance education technologies, legal practices, and philosophies, such as OpenCourseWares, act as enablers to achieving the universal right to education.
The Open Educational Resources OER movement is a technology- empowered effort to create and share educational content on a global level. This paper will explore these kinds of endeavors, and how they can move distance education’s role from one of classroom alternative to one of social transformer. Vest announced that the MIT would make the materials for nearly all its courses freely available on the Internet over the next ten years.
First, to provide free access to virtually all MIT course materials for educators, students, and individual learners around the world. The purpose of this project was to build Unix-compatible software and share it freely with anyone. His plan called for community contributions in the form of programming support, hardware, and even money to hire programmers.
This open, community approach became increasingly prevalent with software developers.
InDavid Wiley announced the first open content license. This license was based on the premise that educational content should be freely developed and shared “in a spirit similar to that of free and open software” Wiley, The idea that content should be free and openly available became popular quickly. InCreative Commons released their first set of copyright licenses jurnla helped content producers license their content for reuse Creative Commons, a.
By the time MIT went live with 50 courses in a pilot version of OpenCourseWare in MIT,Wikipedia had been running for a year, the Internet Archive had been up and running for seven years, and Project Gutenberg had over twenty years of public domain, community-contributed content opencokrseware its library Wikipedia, a. These and jrnal projects became core to the Open Educational Resources movement.
February – 2008
The purpose of the Open Educational Resources movement is to provide open access to high quality digital educational materials. There is broad participation by universities, private organizations, and others. Projects include the Internet Archive see http: The list of participating organizations grows every year as the principles of openness spread.
OpenCourseWare is one way that distance education can support equal access to education. Their charge was to provide the university with guidance regarding how MIT should position itself in the budding online distance education environment. At the time of the dot. They recommended freely and openly sharing the materials used to teach courses at MIT.
In launching this visionary initiative, MIT set the stage to enable universities and organizations to extend the reach and opportunities afforded by teaching and learning to the world at large. Through OCW projects, universities can share and contribute their knowledge and expertise in an opejcourseware and oencourseware accessible manner.
As of Novemberover higher education institutions and affiliated organizations who have committed to begin an OCW website and openly share 10 courses. The 10 course commitment jurbal a requirement to be able to join the OpenCourseWare Consortium, an organization established to assist the OCW movement.
Currently, there are over member institutions and associated organizations around the world see Figure 1. There are currently 28 universities with live sites OCW Consortium, This event “marked the publication of core teaching materials including syllabi, lecture notes, assignments and exams from virtually all MIT courses, 1, in total. Other schools’ open educational resource initiatives are seeing a large amount of traffic.
The Open University of the United Kingdom’s “Open Content Initiative” has been online for olencourseware over a year and has had over junral million visitors come to their site. Governments now help with the funding of OCW projects. OpenCourseWare reaches more learners. These materials can be accessed by rural farmers in Opencoursewaree looking for a better way to get water to their crops. The Open University of the Netherlands has shared a course on computer science designed for self-paced learning that jurnall be used by a self-taught network administrator in Malaysia.
There are many institutions and businesses, and even individuals, creating OCW content. Another is the Connexions project at Rice University, which posts educational content online, though not always in course format. At least one business has entered the OCW arena by providing training and other educational materials under a Creative Commons license.
Through its “Novell OpenCourseWare” site, Novell has published documentation, a knowledge base, and training materials see Figure 2. The production of open educational resources goes beyond even the organizations that create the materials.
There are thousands of producers involved in the open education movement, though many of them do it without realizing it. Every time material is created and licensed under a Creative Commons see http: These images were originally taken for some other purpose, but because the creator chose a Creative Commons license, they were easily and legally re-used on an OpenCourseWare site.
Project Gutenberg, a collection of over 20, public domain books, is another example of how open educational resources can be re-purposed for education. Two public domain plays from the readings section of the Utah State University OCW Theater Arts course have been made available in their entirety in this way.
Creative Commons and other open licenses allow material the potential to be readily re-used in an OpenCourseWare course or other educational product. In most cases, the only restrictions are that the original producer be given attribution, that the work may not be used for commercial purposes, and that adaptations of the work be shared with the community. Materials in OCW collections are not only freely available, but their reuse and adaptation is encouraged.
Many of these resources are licensed under a Creative Commons license allowing for distribution, remix, and reuse of materials.
The Open University of the UK see http: And the Center for Open and Sustainable Learning see http: The materials produced for OpenCourseWare collections are meant to be used and re-used by self-learners, students, and faculty alike.
Providing these self-learners, students, and faculty with OpenCourseWare materials from a university is not as difficult as it might seem. It starts with a conversation about OpenCourseWare that includes administrators and key faculty. Finding faculty who are willing to share their course materials is crucial. Once they have identified one or two courses they are willing to share in an open access format, the process can begin.
Even a small group of enthusiastic faculty and administrators can provide a strong starting point.
General | OpenCourseWare
They can help build support for OCW and give it a greater chance for success. Once key faculty are willing to share their content have been identified, a logical next step is to set-up an OpenCourseWare pilot. Organizations, such as the Center for Open and Sustainable Learning, have provided resources such as software and support materials to explain what OCW is and why institutions should participate.
An eduCommons demo site is available as a sort of “sandbox” for those interested in trying the software before making a decision about how to host their OpenCourseWare see http: The eduCommons software is designed to make implementing and managing an OpenCourseWare project as simple and pain-free as possible.
The William and Flora Hewlett Foundation generously funds the development of eduCommons, and the Center for Open and Sustainable Learning makes the software available completely free of charge.
Support is available as questions arise. The actual process of lpencourseware OpenCourseWare production can be set up many different ways. Often it can be integrated in an institution’s existing faculty technology support or media center. Most opencoursewafe OpenCourseWares have staff dedicated to handling the technical process of converting course content into OCW content. This can reduce the time commitment required of faculty to just a few hours, including an initial meeting to obtain existing course content and a follow-up meeting to obtain final approval once the OCW course has been created.
Minimizing the time required of faculty to create an OCW course increases the likelihood that faculty will choose to participate. Other successful OpenCourseWares use the course conversion and redesign process as service opportunities for students looking for capstone projects. Each institution will need to develop its own policies and standards.
This includes course design standards, intellectual property policies, and faculty release agreements. Samples of these may be obtained free of charge from COSL.
The first few OCW courses published by judnal institution will serve several purposes. They will help those involved to gain an understanding of the software, how to deal with intellectual property, as well as the overall OCW course publication process. These initial courses, however, can also be good internal marketing tools, useful when approaching other faculty about adding their course materials to the institution’s OpenCourseWare.
And, finally, once additional interest has been sparked, it may be necessary to pull together more resources to support the growing OCW project. These resources will likely take the form of people, time, and possibly technical infrastructure.
This is an iterative process that will continue as the OCW project grows and takes juranl more meaning and importance within the institution, and as potential participants come to more clearly understand the benefits and possible challenges of an OpenCourseWare project. There are several reasons a school, business, or individual would opencoursedare their material to be used or re-used in an open manner.
Wiley describes one such reason:.